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The determination of dietary fiber in Oats,

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The determination of dietary fiber in Oats,

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Ibrahim mokhtar, Melinda Tanan26/8-2/9

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Abstract:

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The first aim of this laboratory session is to find the dietary fiber in oats using AOAC enzymatic gravimetric method; the second aim was to determine the energy of the fiber using bomb calorimeter, the results of these two sessions was we found out that the total fiber in the oats was 21g/100g and the energy for the fiber was 16.797 KJ for the sample of 0.591g.

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Introduction:

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The nutrition panels includes the information of the serving size in addition to the serving per container with the calories/kilojoules per each serve or per 100g, the food regulation also determine which nutrition claims can be marketed, such as how many gram of fat does it contain to be “low fat” or low in kilojoules ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Keller</Author><Year>1997</Year><RecNum>21</RecNum><DisplayText>(Keller, Landry et al. 1997)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>21</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”erzssr92pt0tveet2595zaxtdrs50x2s0sa9″>21</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Keller, Scott B</author><author>Landry, Mike</author><author>Olson, Jeanne</author><author>Velliquette, Anne M</author><author>Burton, Scot</author><author>Andrews, J Craig</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The effects of nutrition package claims, nutrition facts panels, and motivation to process nutrition information on consumer product evaluations</title><secondary-title>Journal of Public Policy &amp; Marketing</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Public Policy &amp; Marketing</full-title></periodical><pages>256-269</pages><dates><year>1997</year></dates><isbn>0743-9156</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Keller, Landry et al. 1997). The aim of this session was to find out the fiber content in oats and calculate its energy using enzymatic method and bomb calorimeter respectively. The enzymatic method was designed to find a rapid way to separate the fiber content from protein and starch. The step numbers 4,8,12 in the manual guide was done to have the optimum ph for the enzymes amylase, protease and amyloglucosidase,the 5,9 steps were done to remove starch and protein respectively. The soluble fiber would be filtered with 4 others volumes of ethanol, the insoluble fiber would be filtered with Celite ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Asp</Author><Year>1983</Year><RecNum>22</RecNum><DisplayText>(Asp, Johansson et al. 1983)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>22</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”erzssr92pt0tveet2595zaxtdrs50x2s0sa9″>22</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Asp, Nils G</author><author>Johansson, Claes G</author><author>Hallmer, Haakan</author><author>Siljestroem, Monica</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Rapid enzymic assay of insoluble and soluble dietary fiber</title><secondary-title>Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry</full-title></periodical><pages>476-482</pages><volume>31</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>1983</year></dates><isbn>0021-8561</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Asp, Johansson et al. 1983). The bomb calorimeter which is extracted from the Latin words that means heat measuring, it is used to measure the calories or the total heat in a burnt food sample using oxygen in a closed vessel which is enclosed by water, on a temperature of more than 1000o C, and an pressure of 2900psi all the organic components will be burnt inorganic components such as minerals will be oxidized, and during that process he heat exposed will determine the energy of the sample (Linde, 2007). Common procedure for the analytical of fat is hydrolysis method, which is used to release the bound of lipid before the actual extractions, ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Eller</Author><Year>1996</Year><RecNum>23</RecNum><DisplayText>(Eller and King 1996)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>23</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”erzssr92pt0tveet2595zaxtdrs50x2s0sa9″>23</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Conference Proceedings”>10</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Eller, FRED J</author><author>King, JERRY W</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Determination of fat content in foods by analytical SFE</title><secondary-title>Seminars in Food Analysis</secondary-title></titles><pages>145-162</pages><volume>1</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>1996</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Eller and King 1996). For the sugar there has is a procedure called “Determination of Sugars, Byproducts, and Degradation Products in Liquid Fraction Process Samples”, that is used to show how much sugar inside a solution by hydrolyzing it, and the sugar will be released into a liquid steam ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Sluiter</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>24</RecNum><DisplayText>(Sluiter, Hames et al. 2006)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>24</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”erzssr92pt0tveet2595zaxtdrs50x2s0sa9″>24</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Sluiter, A</author><author>Hames, B</author><author>Ruiz, R</author><author>Scarlata, C</author><author>Sluiter, J</author><author>Templeton, D</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Determination of sugars, byproducts, and degradation products in liquid fraction process samples</title></titles><dates><year>2006</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Sluiter, Hames et al. 2006). For the sodium, several methods can be used such as flame atomic absorption and ion-selective electrode ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Ehling</Author><Year>2010</Year><RecNum>25</RecNum><DisplayText>(Ehling, Tefera et al. 2010)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>25</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”erzssr92pt0tveet2595zaxtdrs50x2s0sa9″>25</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ehling, Stefan</author><author>Tefera, Sebhat</author><author>Earl, Robert</author><author>Cole, Shannon</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Comparison of analytical methods to determine sodium content of low-sodium foods</title><secondary-title>Journal of AOAC International</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of AOAC International</full-title></periodical><pages>628-637</pages><volume>93</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>2010</year></dates><isbn>1060-3271</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Ehling, Tefera et al. 2010).

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Results:

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Graph 1. Individual and food package values for dietary fiber content of food type.

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Graph 2 mean class fibers content per 100g

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Graph 3. Individual and food package values for energy value of food type.

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Table.1

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Digestible carbohydrate content of food type calculated from class mean values of other food constituents

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2.8% in a sample

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Table.2

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Energy content of food type calculated from individual and energy factors for food constituents

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1400.6KJ

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Graph 4

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Diagram 1Diagram 2

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Discussion:

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From graph 2 you can see that the fiber content in the class product per 100g is 18.7g of fiber, which would suggest that 7.4 gram of fiber is in the serving size, according to FSANZ, the serving size of seven gram or more of fiber would be an excellent source of fiber, therefore, our product can claim fiber content because it fits the category of 1.2.7 as it slightly higher than the maximum of 7 suggested by the food standard department (FSANZ, 2013).From diagram 1,2 we can see how the enzymes amylase and protease can take place to and break down all the starch and the protein inside the solution. The inexperience students can cause the difference between groups’ results, as more mistakes can be made with the lack of experience, in our group for example, we had leak in the aluminum foil that made plenty of water to go in and change our solution, that is why we had to complete the experiment with the group in our bench, that is one of the potential error that could happen in the laboratory.The reasons for the different between groups’ results can be the same reasons that have been mentioned in the last paragraph. The difference between our results and the NIP is related to the technique used, as the bomb calorimeter is not very accurate as it is only used temperature difference, that is why our results is not as same as the NIP (Colby college). Knowing the percentage of saturate fat, sugar, and salt, inside every product is very important to aid the consumers to buy healthier choices ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Balasubramanian</Author><Year>2002</Year><RecNum>26</RecNum><DisplayText>(Balasubramanian and Cole 2002)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>26</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”erzssr92pt0tveet2595zaxtdrs50x2s0sa9″>26</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Balasubramanian, Siva K</author><author>Cole, Catherine</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Consumers&apos; search and use of nutrition information: The challenge and promise of the nutrition labeling and education act</title><secondary-title>The Journal of Marketing</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>The Journal of Marketing</full-title></periodical><pages>112-127</pages><dates><year>2002</year></dates><isbn>0022-2429</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Balasubramanian and Cole 2002), therefore, if the consumers get trustworthy information about the content of the product, in addition to their knowledge about the risks come from those unhealthy elements, that would increase the overall health of consumers by buying healthier choices ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Balasubramanian</Author><Year>2002</Year><RecNum>26</RecNum><DisplayText>(Balasubramanian and Cole 2002)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>26</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”erzssr92pt0tveet2595zaxtdrs50x2s0sa9″>26</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Balasubramanian, Siva K</author><author>Cole, Catherine</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Consumers&apos; search and use of nutrition information: The challenge and promise of the nutrition labeling and education act</title><secondary-title>The Journal of Marketing</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>The Journal of Marketing</full-title></periodical><pages>112-127</pages><dates><year>2002</year></dates><isbn>0022-2429</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Balasubramanian and Cole 2002). The current method used to estimate the energy content is by multiplying the number of grams by the kilojoules that it produces, for example if the product has 20gram of carbohydrates, this figure would multiplied by 17 so it is equal to 340 kilojoules, gram of protein is 17 kilojoules, while alcohol Is 29 and fat is 37 which is the highest (FSANZ, 2013). Sometimes the NIP of some manufactures would be different, as the nutrients that they want to display differ from others product, for example some organic companies would have an organic nutrition panel that are specific for them if they get the requirements to be qualified as organic food (Anderson, 2010). The reason why estimating the energy content from the constituent is more accurate, because of the unreal results that the bomb calorimeter provides, moreover, the protein, carbohydrate and the fat have fixed energy, therefore it is more accurate to use them as measurement for the food content.

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Conclusion:

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From these two sessions, we found out that we got 21g of fiber of each 100g from the oats, in addition, the energy content of the sample of 0.591g was 16.797 Kj, moreover, according to the (FSANZ) our product is an excellent source of dietary fiber, as the (FSANZ) stated that if the product has 7 or more grams per serves of fiber that would be great enough to qualify the product as “high in fiber”, I have learned from this sessions to be more careful in the future as I did made a mistake by letting water to leak in my solutions, moreover, to be more careful with each step during the process, as every step is very important.

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Reference:

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Anderson, J 2010, Understanding the food label, Colardo State University, retrieved 15 September 2013, <http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/foodnut/09365.html>.

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ADDIN EN.REFLIST Asp, N. G., et al. (1983). “Rapid enzymic assay of insoluble and soluble dietary fiber.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry31(3): 476-482.

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Balasubramanian, S. K. and C. Cole (2002). “Consumers’ search and use of nutrition information: The challenge and promise of the nutrition labeling and education act.” The Journal of Marketing: 112-127.

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Colby College N,D, The enthalpy of formation of camphor by bomb calorimeter, Colbgy College, retrieved 13 september 2013, <http://www.colby.edu/chemistry/PChem/lab/EnthalpyofFormation.pdf>

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Ehling, S., et al. (2010). “Comparison of analytical methods to determine sodium content of low-sodium foods.” Journal of AOAC International93(2): 628-637.

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Eller, F. J. and J. W. King (1996). Determination of fat content in foods by analytical SFE. Seminars in Food Analysis.

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Food Standars Australia New Zealand, 2013, Nutrition Panel Calculater, Food Standars Australia New Zealand, retrieved 15 septmeber 2013,<http://www.foodstandards.gov.au>.

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Keller, S. B., et al. (1997). “The effects of nutrition package claims, nutrition facts panels, and motivation to process nutrition information on consumer product evaluations.” Journal of Public Policy & Marketing: 256-269.

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Linde, O 2007, Measuring calories in food, Food track, retrieved 14 september 2013, <http://www.oxygenbombcalorimeter.com/pdfs/literature/Measuring-Calories-in-Food.pdf>.

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Sluiter, A., et al. (2006). “Determination of sugars, byproducts, and degradation products in liquid fraction process samples.”

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