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The Correlation Between The Proposed Introduction Of CBT And Local Attitudes In Barbados

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The Correlation Between The Proposed Introduction Of CBT And Local Attitudes In Barbados

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Abstract

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Tourism, Barbados’ major provider of foreign exchange has been experiencing worrying levels of tourism arrivals since the current world recession. The industry needs an injection of ideas to strengthen its portfolio because the economy of Barbados is increasingly declining. Although there is ample research on community-based tourism (CBT), there are no studies available as it relates to Barbados. In particular, no research has been conducted on the relationship between CBT and local attitudes, expectations, and changes in local culture in the context of Barbados. This cross-sectional, quantitative survey design will fill the gap that presently exists in the literature. The research questions seek to analyze the relationship between CBT, attitudes, expectations, and changes in local culture. The sample of 162 persons will be interviewed from Christ Church and St. James, which are the two major tourist areas of Barbados. The proposed study should assist future tourism and management researchers, and should be of importance to tourism stakeholders of Barbados neighboring islands such as St. Lucia, St. Vincent and Grenada, which depend on tourism as a critical component of economic development.

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Keywords: CBT, attitudes, expectations, culture, Barbados.

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Proposal

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Table of Contents

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List of Tables……………………………………………………………………………………vi

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List of Figures …………………………………………………………………….…………….ii

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Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study ……………………………………………………,,,……..1

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Introduction………………………………………………………………………………1

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Background of the Study ……………………………………………………………….. 2

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Problem Statement …………………………………………………………………….… 6

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Purpose Statement………………………………………………………………….……7

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Research Questions and Hypotheses ……………………………………………………8

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Research Questions ………………………………………………………………8Research Hypotheses ……………………………………………………………………8

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Theoretical Framework ………………………………………………………………….9Nature of the Study ………………………………………………………………………11

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Definitions ………………………………………………………………………………12

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Assumptions ……………………………………………………………………….……13

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Scope and Delimitations …………………………………………………………………13

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Limitations ………………………………………………………………………………14

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Significance of the Study ………………………………………………….……………15

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Summary …………………………………………………………………………..……………16

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Chapter 2: The Review of the Literature …………………………………………….…………16

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i

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Introduction …………………………………………………………….………………………16

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Restatement of Research Problem and Purpose ………………..………………………16

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Chapter Preview of Sections ……………………………………………………………17

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Global Recession and the World Economy …………………………….………………17

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Global Recession and the American Economy …………………………………………18

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Global Recession and the British Economy ………………………………….…………19

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Global Recession and Tourism …………………………………………………………19

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Global Recession and Barbados ……………………………………………..…………20

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Global Recession and Barbados Tourism …………………….………………..21

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Literature Search Strategy ……………………………………………………………..23

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Library Data Bases ………………………………………….…………………23

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Search Key Terms Used ……………………………………………………….23

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Theoretical Foundations ………………………………………………………………..23

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Name and Origin of CBT ………………………………………………………23

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Positive Contributions of CBT to Economic Development ….….…………….24

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Major Theoretical Propositions ………………………….……………………..25

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Tourism and Attitudes …………………………………………..…….……………….25

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Definition of Attitudes ………………………………..…………….…………25

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Tourism and Attitudes …………………………………………….…………..25

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Tourism and Expectations …………………………………………….………………37

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ii

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Definition of Expectations …………………………………….………………37

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Tourism and Expectations ……………………………………………….…….37

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Tourism and Culture ……………………………………………………….………….51

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Definition of Culture …………………………………………………………. 51

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Tourism and Culture …………………………………………………………..51

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Summary of Conclusions ……………………………………………………………..61

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Brief Summary of Major Themes in the Literature ………………….………..61

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Impact of Global Recession on Barbados …………………………….61

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CBT ……………………………………………………………………61

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Attitudes ………………………………………………………………62

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Expectations …………………………………………..………………63

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Culture ………………………………………………..……………….64

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Known Concepts in the Literature and Transition to Chapter 3 ……………….65

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Chapter 3:Methodology ………………………………………………………………………..65Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………65

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Purpose of the Study ………………………………………………………..…65

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Preview of Major Sections of the Chapter ……………………………………………66

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Research Design and Rationale ……………………………………………………….66

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Study Variables ……………………………………………………….………66

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Research Design and Connection to the Research Questions ……………..…66

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iii

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Time and Resource constraints consistent with Design Choice ……..………67

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How Design Choice is Consistent with Research Designs

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Needed to Advance Knowledge in the Discipline ………….……………..…67

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Methodology …………………………………………………………………………68

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Population …………………………………………………………….………68

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Target Population ……………………………………………….……68

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Estimation of Population Size ………………………………..………68

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Sampling and Sampling Procedures …………………………………………68

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Non-Probability Sampling ……………………………………………68

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Convenience Sampling …………………………………………….69

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Purposive Sampling …………………………………..………69

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Quota Sampling ………………………………………………..69

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Probability Sampling ………………………….………………………69

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Random Sampling …………………………………….………69

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Systematic Sampling …………………………………….……69

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Stratified Sampling ……………………………………………69

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Cluster Sampling ………………………………………………70

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How the Sample will be Drawn ………………………….……………70

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Sample Frame Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria ……………………….70

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Power Analysis …………………………………………………………70

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iv

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Statistical Power ………………………………………………..70

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Alpha Level …………………………………………………… 70

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Effect Size ………………………………………………………71

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Determination of Sample Size …………………………………………72

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Results ………………………………………………………………………….72

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Recruiting Procedures and Demographic Information …………………………73

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Recruiting Procedures and Demographics ……………………………..73

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Providing Informed Consent to Participants and Data Collection …….74

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Data Collection …………………………………………….…………..74

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Debriefing and Follow-up Procedures ………………………….………74

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Pilot Study ……………………………………………………………………..74

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Researcher Instruments …………………………………………………………75

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Plan to Provide Evidence for Reliability ………………………………………76

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Instrument Validity ……………………………………………….……………77

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Content Validity …………………………………………………….….77

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Face Validity ………………………………………………..….77

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Sampling Validity ………………………………………………77

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Empirical (Predictive) Validity …………………………………………77

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Construct Validity ………………………………………………………77

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Plan to Provide Evidence of Instrument Validity ………………..…….78

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v

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Operationalizing the Variables …………………………………………………78

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Operationalizing Attitudes ………………………………………………………78

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Operationalizing Expectations ……………………………………………..…….78

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Operationalizing Culture ……………………………………………………..….78

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Data Analysis Plan …………………………………………………………………..…..79

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Software …………………………………………………………………..……..79

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Restatement of Research Questions and Hypotheses ……………………………………79

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Research Questions ………………………………………………………….…..79

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Research Hypotheses ……………………………………………………….……79

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Analysis Plan ………………………………………………………………..….80

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Interpretation of Results …………………………………………………..……80

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Threats to External Validity …………………………………………………………….82

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Addressing Threats to External Validity ……………………………………….82

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Threats to Internal Validity ……………………………………………………………..82

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Addressing Threats to Internal Validity …………………………………..…….83

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Threats to Content Validity …………………………………………………….83

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Ethical Procedures ……………………………………………………………….……..83

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Summary of Research Methodology ……………………………………………….…..84

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References ………………………………………………………………………………85

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Appendix A: Consent Form ……………………………………………………………127

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vi

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Appendix B: Confidentiality Agreement Form …………………………………..……131

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Appendix C: Letter of Cooperation from a Community Research Partner ……………133

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Appendix D: Sample Data Collection Coordination Request Form …………………………136

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Appendix E: Data Use Agreement Form ………………………………………………139

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Appendix F: Authorization to use or Disclose PHI for Research Purpose ,,,,,,,,,,,……..143

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Appendix G: Questionnaire on Residents’ Attitudes …………………………………145

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Appendix H: Questionnaire on Residents’ Expectations ………………………….…. 146

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Appendix I: Questionnaire on Residents’ Opinions on Cultural Change…………….147

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Appendix J: Variables and Sources for Items in Survey Instrument – Attitudes…….. 148

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Appendix K: Variables and Sources for Items in Survey Instrument – Expectations ,..150

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Appendix L: Variables and Sources for Items in Survey Instrument

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Cultural Change …………………………………………………….………… 152

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Appendix M: Information on Participants Form ………………………………………154

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List of Tables

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Table 1. Barbados Tourist Arrivals for the Years 2007-2012 …………………………..3

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Table 2. Increase/Decrease in Barbados Tourist Arrivals for the Years 2007-2012…….3

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Table 3. Barbados GDP, Inflation, Unemployment, and Public Debt Rates for the

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Periods 2008- 2012 ……………………………………………………….……21

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Table 4. Total Land-Based Tourist Arrivals to Barbados 2008-2012 …………………22

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Table 5. Total Land-Based Tourist Arrivals to Barbados by Country 2008-2012 ……22

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viii

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List of Figures

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Figure 1. Calculation of Sample Size using G* Power………………………….………………71

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Figure 2. Map of Barbados by Parish……………………………………………………………73

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Introduction

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Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries worldwide. Globally, income generated by this industry rose from US $2 billion to US $919 billion. The number of tourists travelling grew from 25 million people to 940 million persons. Tourism contributes to millions of worldwide jobs and businesses. (Bruyere, Adam, & Lelengula, 2009; Jackman, Lorde, Lowe, & Alleyne, 2011; Sharma & Dyer, 2009).

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The islands of the Eastern Caribbean are Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago. They are characterized by low productivity, high costs, high debt to GDP ratios, and volatile tourism industries (Acevedo, Cebotari, & Turner-Jones (2013, February 20).

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Tourism is Barbados’ main earner of foreign exchange. As a net foreign exchange contributor, it plays a significant role in the maintenance of businesses, job creation, and purchases of foreign goods and services. It’s contribution to employment and gross domestic product is 47% and 46.6% respectively. (Jackman, Lorde, Lowe, & Alleyne, 2011).There is no single definition for community-based tourism (CBT), but it can be described as a tourism program that is managed and serviced by members of the local resident community. Although not limited to rural destinations, CBT is widely characterized as being carried out in rural communities, where local residents are in charge of the program’s operations(Harrsion, 2008; Lopez-Guzman, Borges, & Castillo-Canalejo, 2011).

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The Barbados tourism industry has been underperforming for over 5 years. The main reason for the reduction in tourists is the negative economic impact of the global recession which began in 2008 (Adebamowo, 2011; Barbados Ministry of Tourism, 2011; Li, 2011). This study will assist tourism-planning stakeholders of Barbados and other small Caribbean states that are dependent on tourism in identifying how local Barbados residents would respond to the implementation of CBT to the island. This response is related to residents’ attitudes, expectations, and cultural changes. Local tourism planners would have an advantage in planning CBT strategies because before the program is implemented, they should be able to indicate how residents would respond in the context of their (the residents’) attitudes, expectations, and cultural changes to commencement of CBT. The implementation of CBT to Barbados should lead to positive social change by increasing numbers of tourists arriving in Barbados, and consequentially, increasing foreign exchange. An increase in foreign exchange should lead to a reduction in unemployment and increased business creation and investments by the Barbados government and private sector. This study will also add to the literature by filling the existing gap as it relates to the proposal to implement CBT and its relation to local attitudes, expectations, and cultural changes in small, tourism-dependent economies.

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Background of the Study

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Barbados is the most easterly of the eastern chain of the islands of the Eastern Caribbean. As at March, 2013, the population of the country was estimated to be 200,725 persons (Central intelligence Agency, 2013). Barbados was mainly dependent on sugar cane as its main export product and source of foreign exchange like most of its Eastern, small state neighbors; however, during the 1950s, the island changed its export strategy by shifting to tourism. Long-stay tourists increased from 17829 in 1956 to 536,303 in 2012 (Barbados Ministry of Tourism, 2011; Caribbean Tourism Organization, n.d.).

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Successive Barbados governments have invested significantly in the tourism industry over the years. Since 1971, tourism has contributed to between 10% -12% of the island’s gross domestic product (GDP), and has been the major monetary driver of foreign earnings (Lorde, Francis & Drakes, 2011). However, the numbers of tourists to the island have not increased in any marked volume since the global recession of 2008. Tourist arrivals have been sporadic, and in some instances, declined (Worrell, Belgrave, & Grosvenor, 2011). The Caribbean Tourism Organization (n.d; 2012; 2013) listed Barbados tourist arrivals to the island for the last six years as follows:

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Table 1

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Barbados Tourist Arrivals for the Years 2007 – 2012

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2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

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572,937 567,667518,564532,180567,724536,303

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Note: Adapted from “Individual Country Statistics (2010, 2009, 2007, 2006, 2004)” by Caribbean Tourism Organization (n.d).

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“Latest Statistics 2011” by Caribbean Tourism Organization (2012, July 02).

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“Latest Statistics 2012” by Caribbean Tourism Organization (2013, March 08).

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Based on the above tourist arrivals, the following are total and percentage increases and decreases over the six years’ period 2007-2012:

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Table 2

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Increase/Decrease in Barbados Tourist Arrivals

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for the Years 2007 – 2012

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Years Total Percentage

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Increase Increase

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-Decrease -Decrease

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2007- 2008 -5,270 -0.0091

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2008- 2009-49,103 -0.0864

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2009 –2010 13,616 0.0262

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2010- 2011 35,544 0.0667

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2011-2012 -31,421 -0.0553

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Note: Adapted from “Individual Country Statistics (2010, 2009, 2007, 2006, 2004)” by Caribbean Tourism Organization (n.d).

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“Latest Statistics 2011” by Caribbean Tourism Organization (2012, July 02).

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“Latest Statistics 2012” by Caribbean Tourism Organization (2013, March, 08).

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The Barbados tourism industry needs to be revitalized in order to make gains in the global tourism market. CBT was identified as a form of tourism that can aid tourism recovery (Diss & Trent, 2009); as a result, it might be able to initiate a recovery of the Barbados economy.

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The literature records varying views as it relates to CBT, local attitudes, expectations, and cultural changes:

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Saarinen (2010) declared that positive local views and attitudes toward tourism play an important part in a successful tourism program. Hurst, Niehm, and Littrell (2009) highlighted the need for local residents to harness positive attitudes toward tourists in order for tourism to create a foundation for a successful tourism program. Kennett-Hensel, Sneath, and Hensel (2010) were of the view that, in order for a tourism master plan to be successful, local resident attitudes would have to be in positive alignment and supportive of the effort.

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Razzaq et al. (2011) showed that expectations of rewards can play a part in the motivation of residents to ensure that a CBT program is successful. Kayat (2008) concluded that local stakeholders were committed to CBT when their interests were positively affected and when they were allowed to take part in managing the program. Stone and Stone (2011) advanced the need for tourism stakeholders to promote programs among local residents that would foster a higher level of local expectation in CBT programs

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Baum, Hearns, and Devine (2008) contended that with the passing of time, local attitudes, expectations, and perception toward tourism change due to changes in societal norms and values derived from the impact of sustained tourism. Abga, Ikoh, Bassey, and Ushie (2010) contended that tourism penetrated and diluted local culture. Mhizha, Mandebyu, and Muzondo (2012) suggested that tourism had an overwhelmingly negative impact on society’s culture. It was, however, asserted that tourism could have a positive effect on culture where a unique cultural resource is in demand by tourists, and local residents were in control of that resource.

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The studies above highlight the interaction of the variables: CBT (independent variable), and local attitudes, expectations, and cultural shifts (dependent variables), as they relate to different locations. However, the settings do not relate to Barbados. A study would be, therefore, be needed that could identify how these variables would react in the context of Barbados. The findings of the research should assist Barbados’ tourism planners, and fill the gap that presently exists in the literature as it relates to Barbados.

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Problem Statement

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Tourism has been Barbados’ leading engine of economic growth for the past five decades. In 2008, it accounted for 14% of GDP, 10% of employment, and 54% of foreign currency earnings. However, meaningful and sustained growth has been stalled since the 2008 world recession. As a result, the island has lost a significant portion of its global and local regional market share, with tourism real value-added declining by an estimated 9.8% as its traditional target markets performed poorly (Government of Barbados, 2009; Pattaranukul, 2008). Compounding the matter, tourism growth for Barbados has been slower than that of its Caribbean neighbors; in particular, Antigua and Barbuda, and St. Lucia (Worrell, Belgrave, Grosvenor, & Lescott, 2011). The International Monetary Fund (2011) predicted that Barbados’ foreign reserves will continue to fall due to weak external demand for tourism. The government of Barbados reacted to the slowdown in tourism and economic growth by reducing expenditure and aborting certain social programs (Barbados Economics Society, 2010; Central Bank of Barbados, 2012).

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Barbados’ tourism industry has a greater potential to improve; however, there is a need to introduce novel and effective programs to complement and assist its current tourism operations. CBT was identified as an emerging line of tourism in the world market that contributed substantially to the building of small states’economies (Kavat, 2008; Okazaki, 2008;  Xiong, Ding, Deng, &Zhang, 2008). CBT has increased the standard of living in many of the countries in which it is operational (Marx, 2011); however, some studies indicate that implementation of CBT can be fraught with challenges as it relates to attitudes, expectations, and cultural changes(Candrea, Ispas, Constantin, & Hertanu, 2012; Kesar & Ferjanic, 2008; Lorant, 2011, Wright & Lewis, 2012).

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Presently, there are no studies in the literature that have evaluated the relationship between Barbados’ local population’s attitudes, expectations, changes in local culture, and the implementation of CBT. This research will seek to fill that gap.

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Creswell (2009) stipulated that quantitative research is a ”means for testing objective theories by examining the relationship among the variables” (p.233). The design of this study will be quantitative because the relationship between the independent variable (CBT) and dependent variables (local attitudes, expectations, and change in culture) will be examined.

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Purpose Statement

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Barbados is experiencing a slowdown in its tourism industry due to the economic downturn of the United Kingdom and the United States of America, which are its main sources of tourists (International Monetary Fund, 2010). A strengthened tourism industry should assist Barbados `in arresting its economic problems by increasing much-needed foreign exchange. The purpose of this proposed quantitative study is to evaluate resident attitudes, expectations, and changes in local culture through proposed implementation of CBT in the context of Barbados. It is expected that being able to pre-determine resident attitudes, expectations, and changes in culture should enable tourism stakeholders to minimize mistakes and have an advantage in CBT implementation. Furthermore, the purpose of the proposed study is to provide recommendations for successful implementation of proposed CBT model to enhance tourism in Barbados.

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A quantitative study involves determining the relationship among the independent and dependent variables of the inquiry; it does not determine why the variables react. Qualitative research involves exploring and understanding the meaning of individuals or groups; it is not concerned with examining the relationship among variables. Mixed method inquiry combines both features of quantitative and qualitative inquiry (Creswell, 2009).

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A quantitative design is chosen for this proposed research because the purpose of the statistical tests will be to determine the extent of the relationship between the independent variable (CBT) and the dependent variables (attitudes, expectations, and changes in culture).

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Research Questions and Hypotheses

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The following research questions and hypotheses are formulated to address the main research problem statement:

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Research Questions

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RQ1: What is the correlation between the proposed introduction of CBT and local attitudes in Barbados?

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RQ2: What is the correlation between the proposed introduction of CBT and local expectations in Barbados?

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RQ3: What is the correlation between the proposed introduction of CBT and changes in local culture in Barbados?

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Research Hypotheses

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Ho1: There is no significant relationship between the proposed introduction of CBT and local attitudes in Barbados.

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Ha1: There is a significant correlation between the proposed introduction of CBT and local attitudes in Barbados.

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Ho2: There is no significant correlation between the proposed introduction of CBT and

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local expectations in Barbados.

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Ha2: There is a significant correlation between the proposed introduction of CBT and local expectations in Barbados.

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Ho3: There is no significant correlation between the proposed introduction of CBT and changes in local culture in Barbados.

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Ha3: There is a significant correlation between the proposed introduction of CBT and changes in local culture in Barbados.

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Theoretical Framework

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This study will identify the relationship between the independent variable, CBT, and the dependent variables, local attitudes, expectations, and change in culture in the context of Barbados. The theoretical framework of this study seeks to provide a foundation for the varying thoughts

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