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Political Participation Worksheet (2)

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Student’s Name

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Institutional Affiliation

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Course Tittle

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Professor’s Name

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Date

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Depression

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Introduction

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Recent reports indicate depression is one of the biggest psychological well-being challenges facing Americans nowadays. Research suggests that depression does not come from just having too little or too many particular brain chemicals. Instead, there are many likely causes of depression, including faulty mood regulation by the brain, genetic vulnerability, medical problems, medications, and stressful life events. In the U.S., 16.2 number individuals reported major depression in their lifetime, whereas another 4.1 percent recounted having a minor but chronic type of depression. The majority of the adults in the U.S. are parents who have similar rates of depression compared to the whole U.S. adult population. The biggest increase of depression was among men 45 to 64, and suicide is increasing among mid-life women (Gaynes et al., 2020). Young individuals, from teenagers to college learners, are another group that seems to be impressively affected by the psychological well-being problem that is increasing in America. The 2008 National Survey of Counseling Center Directors confirms that 95% of respondents believe that there has been a trend recently of the increased number of students with severe psychosomatic problems. This paper seeks to discuss the issue of depression in the U.S. population pertaining to the literature review.

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History of U.S. Population

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The United States population has really grown from a recorded 350 individuals in the last four centuries; the population of the U.S. has grown from a registered 350 individuals around Virginia in the year 1610 to approximately 331 million individuals in 2020. A lot of large families and immigration have been the reason for the growth. The United States population has grown around 8% over the last decade to more than a 33million individuals, according to a Census Bureau assessment given before the statistics of the decennial count. The initial decennial census in the U.S. in 1790 indicated a population of only below four million persons. The population was more than 330 million in 2019. In 2008 there was an almost one percent increase in the birth rate compared to 2007. The United States had a 0.6 percent increase in population in 2019. According to the census, the amalgamation of net international migration, birth, and death increases the United States population by one individual every 18 seconds. Although the statistics might sound so high, the United States population is growing slower compared to other nations. According to research papers, the people of the U.S. will expand by 100 million over the next 40 years.  

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Types of Depression

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It is approximated that 16.2 million adults in the U.S. have had in any case on major depressive incident in a particular year. The following are the types of depressions:

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Sessional depression

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It is also called a seasonal affective disorder. It is a type of depression whereby the moods of a person are affected by seasonal patterns. The state happens in up to five percent of the U.S. population in a particular year (Domaradzka & Fajkowska, 2018). It is typically caused by the onset of autumn and lasts all the way through the winter. It rarely occurs in summer and spring. 

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Bipolar Disorder

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It is a type of depression that affects nearly 2.8 percent of the U.S. population in a given year. It happens equally in women and men, whereas 83 percent of occurrences are considered severe. It involves the growth of an energized mood or a manic episode. Other times these might be followed by episodes of depression.

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Postpartum depression

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It is caused by hormonal change resulting from lack of sleep, childbirth, and the pressures of taking care of a newborn. When these states continue for more than a couple of weeks, it might be a sign of a significant depressive illness. Additional symptoms include lack of appetite, withdrawal, and negative train thought. The American Psychological asserts that 15 percent of United States women have a depressing occurrence within three months of delivery.  

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Psychotic depression 

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It is whereby bipolar or major depression is accompanied by delusions, hallucinations, or paranoia. Approximately 25% of patients who are admitted to the sickbay as a result of depression actually have psychotic depression. Individuals in the whole world will experience this type of depression before age 75.

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Multiple risks & associated factors

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When left untreated, it can result in serious well-being problems, including exposing an individual life to life at risk. According to studies and research done by several scholars, some of the risk factors of depression include stressful life events, explored financial difficulties, chronic or severe illness (e.g., epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, obesity, and diabetes), lack of social support, and history of the disease in a blood relative (Gaynes et al., 2020). Conflicts like personal disputes or turmoil with friends or family can also lead to depression. Past sexual, physical, or emotional abuse can result in depression as well. On the other hand, good things like the desire to graduating or moving can result in depression. Present-day evidence asserts that depression is associated with personalities such as negative emotionality/ neuroticism, conscientiousness, and positive emotionality/ extraversion. In addition, character traits seem to add to the onset and development of dejection by various pathways.

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Evidence-based practice

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Psychotherapy appears to be a more functional evidence-based practice. It entails a talk in which a trained, proficient psychotherapist works to talk over their issues and learn new skills (Domaradzka & Fajkowska, 2018). Psychotherapies that meet standards use evidence-based approaches for depression, including problem-solving therapy, CBT, reminiscence therapy, and behavioral therapy. Psychiatric treatment can aid depressed persons to discourse about their experiences and feel listened to and attain an understanding of the intelligence processes that result in dejected moods.

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Use of Medication

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Depression complications are treatable. SSRIs, which consist of paroxetine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, sertraline, and citalopram, have turned out to be the best medical treatment for major depression. Clinicians usually begin by recommending an SSRI. They well-thought-out to be safer and commonly cause less troublesome side effects compared to other kinds of antidepressants. If these medication does not work, another choice is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. This medication approach uses magnetic pulses to arouse the parts of the brain that control mood. The use medication usually is administered five days for six weeks. 

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Instruments Used to Access and monitor depression.

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Some of the standard formats used for depression and psychological assessment include a checklist, rating scales, standardized tests, observations, interviews, and questionnaires. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is extensively used to measure the severity of depression and behavioral manifestations and to screen for depression. It can be used for individuals aged 13 to 80. It comprises 21 self-report kinds of stuff that people complete by multiple selection response formats.

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Alternative therapy

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One of the alternative treatments is Interpersonal therapy. It is a time-limited therapy for primary depressive conditions. It aims to eliminate or reduce depressive symptoms by enhancing and bettering the quality of the patient’s current social functioning and interpersonal relations. 

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Conclusion

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Prompt handling of depression is significant to general well-being. Untreated depression causes stroke, heart attacks, and several complications, particularly in older individuals (Topooco et al., 2020). It is essential to diagnose and treat depression because once a person is sick, depression can make recovery difficult—medication like vitamin D and Psychotherapy function well for depression. 

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Reference

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Domaradzka, E., & Fajkowska, M. (2018). Cognitive emotion regulation strategies in anxiety and depression understood as types of personality. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 856.

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https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00856

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Gaynes, B. N., Lux, L., Gartlehner, G., Asher, G., Forman‐Hoffman, V., Green, J., … & Lohr, K. N. (2020). Defining treatment‐resistant depression. Depression and anxiety, 37(2), 134-145.

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https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22968

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Topooco, N., Riper, H., Araya, R., Berking, M., Brunn, M., Chevreul, K., … & behalf of the E-COMPARED, O. (2017). Attitudes towards digital treatment for depression: a European stakeholder survey. Internet interventions, 8, 1-9.

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https://doi.org/10.1016/j.invent.2017.01.001

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