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Define biased surveys and questionnaires

Quiz Instructions

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Student Learning Objectives: This quiz will help you understand the various types of evidence used by authors to support their arguments. You will also understand the pros and cons of each type of evidence. You will also be asked to relate the concepts covered in the chapters with your real-life experiences.

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1-Biased Surveys and Questionnaires:

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Define biased surveys and questionnaires:

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Biased question surveys are arranged so that they either deliberately lead the respondent to a certain response or are formulated in a way that can confuse them and lead to ambiguous answers. Simultaneously, a questionnaire is a research tool consisting of a series of questions to collect information from respondents and can be thought of as a type of written interview. Often, open and closed questions are used to collect data.

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Advantages and disadvantages of using Intuition as Evidence:

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A scientific method includes a broad collection of data and frequent collection of information to monitor and review decisions. It follows that the scientific approach to decision making is less time-intensive. However, it provides flawed information with short-term emotional bias. Insufficient alternative consideration and lack of openness; since each person has a different history of experience.

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Personal Example of an instance where you used a survey or a questionnaire. You could have responded to one, or you could have administered one. If you have never used this strategy in your real life, you may provide an example from having observed others use it or an example you have read about or heard about.

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Questionnaires were used on paper, and an analysis of the data took place later if required. These processes are now typically combined since questionnaires can be generated directly through online survey tools. However, for reasons other than data analysis, questionnaires can still be used. Among other examples, job applications and medical history formats are questionnaires not intended to be analyzed statistically. This is the important difference between surveys and questionnaires — they may be collectively or individually existed, but a survey is used together.

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2- Appeal to Authority

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Definition:

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A statement that is considered valid on account of the person’s status or authority.

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Advantages and disadvantages of using appeals to Authority as Evidence:

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Fast and informal conflict resolution; usually less stressful. Confidentiality and publicity avoidance. High level of control of the party: Contracting parties create their process and make their agreement. They increased satisfaction and settlement compliance when parties are directly involved. Participated in the works deal.

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Personal Example. If you have never used this strategy in your real life, you may provide an example from having observed others use it or an example you have read about or heard about:

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This is when someone uses an authority’s evidence to support their conclusion, but this authority is not an expert in the field involved. If someone says, “Einstein said, ‘God is not playing dices with the world,’ for instance, God must exist.”

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3- Testimonials

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Definition:

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There is no requirement for proof to make it appropriate for testimonial evidence. It simply means what a viable witness confesses in a court case. Proof of testimony is a document made under oath.

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Advantages and disadvantages of using Testimonials as Evidence:

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It helps to achieve the right sequence of events that is crucial to understand why and who occurred. It leads to the solving of mysteries and addresses questions about cases and events. It may have credibility problems, but it may produce a strong case against the defendant and promote the flow of justice if used in combination with other evidence.

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Personal Example. If you have never used this strategy in your real life, you may provide an example from having observed others use it or an example you have read about or heard about:

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One Example is a witness who points to a person in court and says, “I’ve seen that guy rob the grocery store.” This is also called straightforward proof or prima facie proof. Any item or information related to a crime may be physical evidence. Proof of testimony can be used to prove or disprove various items. The prosecution, as well as the defense, may be used.

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4- Personal Experience

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Definition:

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Personal knowledge is also used to endorse the arguments of others. You may include your own experiences, known as anecdotal proof. Or, it could be someone else’s understanding. This is referred to as hearing proof. Often both anecdotal and hearsay proofs fall short of their results.

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Advantages and disadvantages of using Personal Experience as Evidence:

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No significant initial investment is required. Help clinicians remain up to date with standard protocols based on evidence. Uses near-real-time information for care decisions. It improves accountability, transparency, and value. Improves care quality and results. It takes a lot of time and effort for practitioners to develop new skills in searching and assessing evidence. Without these qualifications, practitioners will tend to receive confirmatory preference — seeing only evidence supporting their personal experience and judgment.

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Personal Example. If you have never used this strategy in your real life, you may provide an example from having observed others use it or an example you have read about or heard about:

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Customers have constantly changing needs, of course. What customer service representatives used to resolve existing customer problems became a need for customers to resolve problems before they even existed. How can a customer service team recognize and efficiently solve these customer needs every day? Well, of course, with the help of a customer survey. You can ensure that you are on the right path by receiving constant feedback from your customers.

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5- Case Examples

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Definition:

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A detailed study of the unit, such as a company or a business group, highlights factors that contribute to its success or failure. b. Exemplary or precautionary, a good example: it’s a case study in strong leadership politics.

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Advantages and disadvantages of using Case Examples as Evidence:

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Case studies allow for many details to be gathered that other research designs would not normally easily achieve. The collected data is usually much richer and deeper than other experimental designs can find. Substantial samples of such participants are not available in exceptional cases. Case studies can help experimenters adapt ideas and produce new assumptions that can be used for subsequent testing. One of the big criticisms is that it is difficult to generalize the broader population’s data. Data are, therefore, not always relevant or particularly useful through longitudinal case studies. Certain cases are not scientific.

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Personal Example. If you have never used this strategy in your real life, you may provide an example from having observed others use it or an example you have read about or heard about:

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In a scenario where you have to count on (people close to them) if someone suffers a brain injury and loses a certain capability (maybe a change of personality), tell you exactly what his identity was before the injury. This isn’t very scientific and probably not very credible (if he was a terrible guy, would he say this, or would his family say this about him?). This leaves researchers very uncertain before they even begin to study the person. However, it may be a genuinely good starting point for more study if the condition is fresh and unheard of – such as the case of Phineas Gage, which was perhaps the first person to display personality changing after a brain injury.

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6- Research Studies

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What are the three characteristics of Research Studies? Name and define them.

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Empirical – focused on findings and hypothesis tests.

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Systematic – the sequential and orderly process follows.

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Regulated – all variables are kept stable except those that are checked or tested.

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Advantages and disadvantages of using Research Studies as Evidence.

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As it is often hypothesized, the research may depend very heavily on the results you have obtained, and it could be deceptive if you look for a phenomenon that isn’t there. The ethics procedure can be longer and more complicated because you use human participants.

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Personal Example: If you have never used this strategy in your real life, you may provide an example from having observed others use it or an example you have read about or heard about:

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Well-conceived, systematic evaluations, with or without meta-analysis included, are usually considered to provide the best evidence for all types of questions because they are based on results of several studies identified in comprehensive systematic literature research.

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7-Research and the Internet

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What are the advantages of using the Internet to conduct research:

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Ability to get a big sample that increases statistical capability. Also, an opportunity to obtain a sample more diverse than conventional studies at universities. Prevents experimental request effects (no “experimenter expectancy” effect, without interaction with the experimenter). The data is automatically encrypted, and no data input errors are present. May take samples of people outside of your schools and minimize testing costs.

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What are the disadvantages of using the Internet to conduct research:

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Some subjects may try to participant in the same study more than once. Since multiple email addresses are simple to build today for people, you can also request each subject’s name and/or address. Often researchers get a reward for a “lottery” scam (i.e., $100 for every 400 participants), so requesting name/address to award the lottery check is necessary. The IP address of each participant can also be obtained, and duplicates searched. One problem is that DSL providers often send several people the same IP address.

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