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Deep History of Florida and the Polk County Bioregion

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Deep History of Florida and the Polk County Bioregion

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Deep History of Florida and the Polk County Bioregion

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Florida is a small county in the US. The Native Americans inhabited the bioregion of Florida 12,000 years ago. The early inhabitants of the peninsula of Florida left behind artifacts and archeological evidence that is helps today in the study of the history of this state (Miller, 1998). Historical records begin with the arrival of Europeans to Florida. In 1513, a Spanish scientist Juan Ponce de Leon made the first records of the Polk County of central Florida. The Polk County is the “sunshine state” due to the warm climate and often the sunshine. The economy of this state has developed gradually, natural resource exploitation in mining, fishing, logging, and sponge diving as well as farming, cattle ranching, and citrus growing (Randazzo & Jones, 1997). This paper researches on the geological, biological, and the cultural history of Florida, central Florida, in Polk County.

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The geological history of Florida commences from deep beneath its own surface where ancient rocks reveal that Florida was once in the past part of the northwest Africa. As classical supercontinents broke apart, hit, and rifted over, a piece of Africa remained joined to North America (Whitney, Means, & Rudloe, 2004). This fragment set the groundwork for the carbonate accumulation, which comprises the Florida and Bahamas Platforms. Florida in wide is a simple composition geologically expressing. The rocks are all sedimentary in entry, no molten or greatly metamorphosed rocks occurring in the state. The sea occupying the modern area of Florida was in ancient times remote from the origins of sediment, so that the dimension of canyon was much reduced here than nearer the original coastline (Randazzo & Jones, 1997). This sea was convenient to the existence of shell life, the fossils gathering to form shell rock; hence, in the early account of Florida in particular a comprehensive amount of lime and shell rock assembled.

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In addition, the most common rock in Florida is the sedimentary rock. Cemented mineral particles are part of the sedimentary rocks that form the geological history of the Polk county of Florida (Miller, 1998). For instance, shell fragments, which cement together by calcite to form the sedimentary rock coquina. Limestone is another the sedimentary rock. It is essential in road building and other construction applications. A large area of Florida is covered with sediments such as the quartz sand or sedimentary rocks. Volcanic and metamorphic rocks do not happen directly at the facade, but in underground wells reaching from 3,500 feet to beneath than 18,670 feet below land exterior (Anderson, 1998). Since Florida is comparatively a young terrain, its foundation rock is composed of carbonate fossils of marine algae and shells placed in an ancient sea. Evidence shows earliest geologic deposits began during the Tertiary Eocene era.

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A biological history of the Polk county of Florida dates back to when European ships first arrived on Florida in the 16th century, and the region was completely populated. Indians of the Timucua – Apalachee, Ais, Tekesta, and Calusa were growing rich lands in the north (Whitney, Means, & Rudloe, 2004). They were growing maize, pods, and squash, and fishing or hunting for almost all of their meals in the south. Places near stable food sources with fresh water, suitable microclimate and high, dry ground made the good home for these Indians (Waitley, 2003). Fresh and saline bodies of water provided regular reservoirs of fish and crustacean, while fertile soils allowed agriculture to thrive. Vulnerability almost decimated central Florida’s indigenous population of about 100,000 to deadly infections that the European immigrants brought to Florida. Measles, severe cold, even the common cold were fatal to Indians. In addition, the wars with Spain and other Europeans joined to the near destruction of early Indians of Florida.

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Limited is clear about the early Indians of South Florida. The famously known society is the Calusa, whose vast kingdom was under by a sole chief. Despite lacking farming, the Calusa developed extensive political, social and trade channels (Nelson, 2005). They were also able wood carvers, and the many ritual items retrieved from a Calusa site on Key Marco exhibit great artistic ability (Whitney, Means, & Rudloe, 2004). The Calusa existed around Charlotte Harbor just north of present-day Naples and around the entrance of the Caloosahatchee River in South Florida. Arguably, the most difficult pre-contact culture in South Florida subsisted inland, in the Lake Okeechobee basin (Barnet, 2007). These folks not only had a complicated political and social structure, but they also grew maize. This has led some critics to infer that early people of South American migrated northland to South Florida through the Antilles islets of the Caribbean.

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Although some of its flora and fauna are evident, the Everglades of the Polk central Florida too is included of many numbers, if not thousands, of lesser-known plants, -vcreatures, and fish that are sections of the living – changing ecosystem (Barnet, 2007). The River of Grass involves wetlands plants, trees and marsh plants, insects, fresh and saltwater fish, amphibians, lizards, mammals, and birds. Some 67 species are on the governmental threatened or jeopardized lists. Many rare, species of exceptional interest, are included on state lists. A brief overview of chosen Everglades’ plant and animal species are the marsh species, Tree Island, hammock species, mangroves, orchids, bromeliads, and ferns (Nelson, 2005). The flora and fauna of the Florida has a vast number of plants and animals. The historical evidence shows that the ancient Florida was the best place to be. The flora and fauna of the Polk County of Florida is an important part of history.

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Humanity arrived at Florida at least 12,000 years ago. The rich diversity of backgrounds in prehistoric Florida carried a large number of plants and creatures (Miller, 1998). The animal community included all mammals. In addition, many additional giant mammals that are now obsolete such as the saber-tooth tiger cat, mastodon, giant armadillo, and camel scoured the area (Anderson, 1998). The Florida coastline along the Atlantic Ocean together with the Gulf of Mexico was very distinctive 12,000 years ago. The sea level was much below than it is today. As a result, the Florida foreland was higher than double as wide as it is now (Waitley, 2003). The humankind who inhabited Florida at that time was archers and gatherers, who only seldom sought big game for food. Recent researchers think that their nutrition consisted of little mammals, plants, seeds, and shellfish.

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These primary Floridians settled in areas where regular water supply, good stone supports for tool making, and fuel were ready. Over the centuries, these local people developed complex cultures (Anderson, 1998). During the period prior to connection with Europeans, indigenous societies of the peninsula developed advanced farming, give in exchange with different groups in what is now the southeastern United States, and expanded their social system, reflected in large synagogue hills and community systems. The social history of the Floridians was rich with practices that ensured that each member of the society participated towards the well-being of the Polk county Florida.

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In conclusion, the history of Florida is rich with different knowledge. The geological history reveals the sedimentary rocks that lie beneath the surface of the earth. The biological history shows the different residents of the area including both plants and animals. Lastly, the social history explains the ways of life of the inhabitants of Florida. How they carried out their lives in the ancient days. Although this paper has analyzed the bioregion of Florida, more study that is critical is still necessary.

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References

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Anderson, R. (1988). Guide to Florida prehistoric animals. S.l.: Winner Enterprises.

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Barnett, C. (2007). Mirage: Florida and the vanishing water of the Eastern U.S. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

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Bennett, T. P. (2010). The legacy: South Florida museum. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

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Clark, J. C. (2013). Orlando, Florida: A brief history.

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Miller, J. J. (1998). An environmental history of northeast Florida. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

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Nelson, M. K. (2005). Trembling earth: A cultural history of the Okefenokee Swamp. Athens: University of Georgia Press.

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Rajtar, S. (2007). A guide to historic Lakeland, Florida. Charleston, SC: History Press.

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Randazzo, A. F., & Jones, D. S. (1997). The Geology of Florida. Gainesville, Fla: University Press of Florida.

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Statsky, W. P., Diotalevi, R. N., & Linquist, P. (2010). The Florida paralegal: Essential rules, documents, and resources. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Cengage Learning.

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Ste.Claire, D. (1998). Cracker: The Cracker culture in Florida history. Daytona Beach, Fla: Museum of Arts and Sciences.

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Waitley, D. (2003). Best backroads of Florida: Volume 3: Beaches and Hills. Sarasota, FL: Pineapple Press.

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Wasserman, A. (2010). A people’s history of Florida, 1513-1876: How Africans, Seminoles, women, and lower class whites shaped the Sunshine State. Sarasota, Fla: A. Wasserman.

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Whitney, E. N., Means, D. B., & Rudloe, A. (2004). Priceless Florida: Natural ecosystems and native species. Sarasota, Fla: Pineapple Press.

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Zimmerman, S. (2006). A history of smuggling in Florida: Rumrunners and cocaine cowboys. Charleston, SC: History Press.

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Miller, J. J. (1998). An environmental history of northeast Florida. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

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