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Dean Smolens Professor Aksel Senior Seminar 111918

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Dean Smolens Professor Aksel Senior Seminar 11/19/18

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Intelligence aAgency and the Presidency: Does it Matter?

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In Iran i in 1953, not only did the country face a revolution, but the world also witnessed the first successful overthrow of a sovereign government by an outside force. While a lot of the articles and primary documents emphasize the events that surround this event. None of them actually delve into this idea that this intervention has instilled the hate that most countries have towards the American government, more specifically in the Middle East. Even to this day Iran and the United States still experience an unstable relationship. To quote from an article published by the White House on the United States and Iran relations “More than 700 individuals, entities, vessels and aircraft will be put on the sanctions list, including major banks, oil exporters and shipping companies.”1 While this does not prove the point that the resentment towards the U.S. in the Middle East was instilled back then. It shows that the U.S. is still struggling to control Iran 50 years later. The fact that the U.S. to this day, still attempts to bully Iran around,. mMakes one wonder how the people of

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914400162369500Iran view the United States, and whether or not the CIA’s operation back in 1953 . cCreated this rRadical Islamic terrorism that is prevalent in today’s society. After conducting research, I have been able to come to the conclusion that the actions of the CIA and United Kingdom, sparked the animosity the people possess within the surrounding region have developed upon the U.S.

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark0” 1https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/president-donald-j-trump-reimposing-sanctions-lifted-unacceptable-iran-deal/

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foreign policy. Not only that, it has been learned that no matter who is in charge of the free world, the shift in power does not affect the intelligence agencies tactics.

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By now, almost everyone should be aware about the fact that almost every country partakes in covert operations. Espionage is nothing new to society, but within the past century the world has seen a rise in covert operations. The utilization of covert operations can be traced back throughout history. The United States government, with the help of President Harry S. Truman, introduced the world to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in 1947. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark4” 2 The CIA very

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well might be one of the most widely-known government agencies in the world, which is ironic since it’s main purpose is to operate covertly. Not only do individuals analyze the operations carried out by the agency, but the agency can be seen throughout pop culture cinema and literature. Now the depiction of the CIA within pop culture always seems to vary. There seems to be so much controversy surrounding this agency it truly does boggle the mind. Even scholars and former employees when discussing the CIA. All seem to form their own opinions either viewing this agency as a beneficial one to American national security, or a corrupt entity that has no morals. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark5” 3 Whether or not, this agency is good or bad, it still operates to this day, and there is

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plenty of covert operations and documents that are available to the public today. Despite all this

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controversy surrounding the CIA, it truly does make one ponder upon what exactly is the true purpose of this agency?

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark2” 2“History of the CIA.” Central Intelligence Agency, Central Intelligence Agency, 23 Mar. 2013, www.cia.gov/kids-page/6-12th-grade/operation-history/history-of-the-cia.html#war-changes-the-plan.

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark3” 3 Stockwell, John. “The Case against the C.I.A.” Issue: A Journal of Opinion 9, no. 1/2 (1979): 21-23. doi:10.2307/1166936. 21

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To understand the agency of the CIA it is important to understand its origin. Espionage in the United States can be traced back to the American Revolution HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark10” 4, but up until World War II,

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covert operations never operated under a government-wide level in the U.S. Drawing from the CIA’s website President Franklin Delano Rosevelt had anticipated “the need for the State Department and War Department to cooperate better and adopt a more strategic view of operations”. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark11” 5 According to the CIA, the main objective of the organization was to create an

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agency controlled by the government, that would gather information for the State department. As a result of the State department obtaining any information on other nation’s friend or foe, the State department would be able to utilize this information to better prepare itself against its enemies. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark12” 6 Before the CIA was created there was another government agency known as the Office

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of Strategic Services (OSS). Now the OSS was originally created by New York Attorney William

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J. Donovan in 1941. He was appointed by President Rosevelt, and his job was to collect and analyze strategic information to support the allied armies during WWII. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark13” 7

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Even before the creation of the CIA the U.S.’s first intelligence agency spurned

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914400118745000controversy amongst those involved with the OSS. One memorandum for the president recorded by Colonel Richard Park says “If the O.S.S. is permitted to continue with its present organization, it may do further serious harm to citizens, business interests,. and national interests

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark6” 4 Sulick, Michael J.. 2012. Spying in America : Espionage from the Revolutionary War to the Dawn of the Cold War. Baltimore: Georgetown University Press. ProQuest Ebook

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Central. 2

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark7” 5 https://www.cia.gov/index.html HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark8” 6Warner, Michael. The Creation of the Central Intelligence Group. www.cia.gov/library/center- for-the-study-of-intelligence/kent-csi/vol39no5/pdf/v39i5a13p.pdf. 112

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark9” 7 Ibid 114

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of the United States.” HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark16” 8 According to this public document, this is an informal presentation of

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Colonel Park’s thoughts upon the OSS. While Park lists the flaws related to the OSS, he also believes it is important to create a better Central Intelligence Agency that would control all of the United State’s Intelligence services. Due to the OSS being undermined by British Intelligence the United States turned to presidency to decide whether or not the U.S. will make a new Intelligence agency. Since the OSS was considered to be too radical for the U.S. in peacetime, the White House wanted to come up with a new intelligence agency,. oOne that would be much more organized and equipped for the U.S. in peacetime., and so the CIA built.To understand the purpose of the CIA, I feel it is important to study CIA involvement in world affairs. Not only that I also feel it is important to see what other experts have to say why the CIA was created in the first place. One work I scanned was The Rhetorical Presidency, Propaganda and the Cold War by Shawn J. Parry-Giles. This book covered the origin of the CIA. How President Truman’s creation “provided the structure in which America’s first two Cold War presidents would combat the war against communism with reduced congressional oversight.” HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark17” 9 Parry-Giles mentions that the C.I.A. was created by the presidency as a tool to

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914400144081500utilize information and generate American support for U.S. foreign policy. The inception of the CIA gave the presidency a direct link into foreign intelligence and with that information the president is able to utilize propaganda to influence the U.S. public. This only increased the president’s power giving the president the ability to thwart congress supervision by using the

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark14″ 8 Park Report – ‘Memorandum for the Record’; Colonel Park’s Comments on OSS (Declassified Top Secret Report, 12 March 1945). Harry S. Truman Library, ”OSS/Donovan” Folder. 4

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark15” 9Parry-Giles, Shawn J.. 2001. Rhetorical Presidency, Propaganda and the Cold War. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated. Accessed March 18, 2018. ProQuest Ebook Central.xvi

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powers of presidency to address the U.S. public and influence the anti-communist mindset. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark20” 10 This book covers how the presidency utilized propaganda and how the presidents were able to use the CIA to shape U.S. foreign policy. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark21” 11

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In order to truly understand the purpose of the CIA I feel I am going to have to find as many primary sources on the creation of the agency. I sifted through numerous articles and documents which map out the entire situation. The only problem with my argument is that yes there is only one article I was able to find that described the internal struggle within Iran, but from the outside looking in their is some shady deals going on within the CIA, and I feel I have been able to discern the true motives. Motives which created more problems for not only the United States, but the world altogether. Iran-U.S. relations are at an all time strain. It was mentioned in the first paragraph that the U.S. is placing sanctions upon Iran and it all stems from this particular situation. Besides going through numerous CIA documents and the papers of the Truman and Eisenhower cabinets, this proves that the operations of the CIA are not swayed by who is in charge of the United States does not matter. It has been discerned that whoever is in charge of the United States does not have an impact of how covert operations are carried out throughout the rest of the world and foreign affairs. Besides looking for the true motives I am also able to come up with the idea that it does not matter which president is in office the CIA acts as an autonomous group and works as it’s own agency separate from the president of the United

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark18” 10 Ibid xx

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark19” 11Larry, and Stuart. Shadow Warfare : The History of America’s Undeclared Wars. Berkeley: Counterpoint, 2014. Accessed March 18, 2018. ProQuest Ebook Central. 51

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States. Not only does this raise ethical concerns, but it also opens a new world in the tactics of psychological warfare. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark25” 12

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The creation of the Central Intelligence agency clearly appears to have changed the way the United States involved itself in other countries. I feel I have merely touched the surface on the matter of the true purpose of the CIA. As I sifted to research more documents and scholarly articles, I exposed the CIA and formed my own thesis to this question. Drawing from the research conducted so far. It appears most people at the time of the beginning of the CIA thought this agency’s duty. Was to better prepare the U.S. War department, and better inform the presidency on what exactly is going on throughout the world. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark26” 13 However, just by scanning the

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documents and scholarly sources the CIA clearly became much bigger than an intelligence agency. It became an instrument in implementing U.S. policies in foreign nations as discreetly as possible.

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After World War II, governments had opened up to the idea of clandestine operations. By creating a system of intelligence. Countries would be able to enforce their interests without military force. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark27” 14 The 1953 coup of Iran to this day has become widely known to be incited by

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Great Britain. Along with the help of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), this is significant

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due to the fact that this is the first recorded successful overthrow a regime change conducted by

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark22” 12Parry-Giles, Shawn J.. Rhetorical Presidency, Propaganda and the Cold War. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated, 2001. Accessed March 17, 2019. ProQuest Ebook Central. 5

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark23” 13 Ibid 11

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark24” 14 Ibid 22

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the CIA. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark30” 15 As more and more CIA documents are released over time. Historians are given new

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insights on the operation that added surreptitious regime changes to the U.S. arsenal. Historians that study this topic question the significance of the agency of the U.S. government, and whether or not these covert operations were only to protect U.S. interests. Whether or not this operation was carried out solely to secure oil industries within the Middle East. It is widely debated amongst experts today. Some historians attribute U.S. foreign relations within the Middle East as a direct impact leading to the rise of radical Islamic terrorist groups.

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While everyone can agree upon the fact the CIA was heavily involved in the overthrow of

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Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh. There are different methods of research amongst scholarly articles. In Steve Marsh’s The United States, Iran and Operation ‘Ajax’: Inverting Interpretative Orthodoxy. He claims he provides a new argument that the Eisenhower administration was the main reason for CIA involvement in Iran. According to Mars, he believed that if Truman was still in power. The CIA would not have bothered in Anglo-Iranian affairs.

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However, with the use of CIA documents—that had just recently become available to the public

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— he argued the Truman administration was just as proactive in Iranian affairs as the Eisenhower cabinet. Marsh believes that between the two presidency’s. They both viewed the oil crisis in Iran as a “Cold War issue”. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark31” 16 It is clear Marsh holds a traditionalists viewpoint within the article as he

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views CIA-Iranian relations. By focusing on the major players involved, more specifically the presidents, there is an oversight on the underlying factors. Which surround the U.S.’s first covert

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark28” 15 Marsh, Steve. “The United States, Iran and Operation ‘Ajax’: Inverting Interpretative Orthodoxy.” Middle Eastern Studies 39, no. 3 (2003): 1-38., 1

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark29” 16 Marsh, Steve. “The United States, Iran and Operation ‘Ajax’: Inverting Interpretative Orthodoxy.” Middle Eastern Studies 39, no. 3 (2003): 1-38., 5

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overthrow of a regime. Marsh examines the hierarchical elite, and the actions they took upon Iran in the midpoint of the 20th century. It appears the tone that Marsh takes in his article is a mere report of why the U.S. felt they needed to mediate the tense relations involving the oil interests of Great Britain and Iran. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark36” 17

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While Marsh focuses in on the origins of the Iranian coup. Kim Jaechen gives his thoughts on the cause and effects of the coup. In his article, The First American Secret War: Assessing the Origins and Consequences of operation AJAX in Iran. Unlike Marsh—who merely discusses the origins— Jaechen’s analysis on this particular historical event consists of an action reaction scenario. The difference between the articles is the origin in which U.S. officials partake in a covert operation. It is apparent the leaders in these articles both viewed Iran as a pivotal nation in regards to oil. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark37” 18 In Jaechen’s argument, he attributes the effects of the clandestine

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operations the U.S. carried throughout the middle East, more specifically Iran, to the development of Islamic radical terrorism. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark38” 19 It is clear in his writing that Jaechen possess a

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revisionists approach when looking at U.S. covert operations during the Cold War. He argues the

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U.S. encouraged covert warfare opposed to open conflict during the Cold War. The reasoning of this is based on public opinion. He makes the argument that the reason for covert operations was fueled by public opinion HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark39” 20. This was supported during the Cold War, and up to this day in the

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark32” 17 Ibid 18

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark33” 18Kim, Jaechun. “The First american secret war: Assessing the origins and consequences of operation AJAX in Iran.” International Area Review 9 (1) (03/01; 2018/10): (2006). 195-

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216, 197

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark34” 19 Ibid 198

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark35” 20 Ibid 199

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post 9/11 era, the public opinion has shifted towards supporting clandestine forms of warfare opposed to open conflict.

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While the previous two scholarly monographs focus on U.S. involvement within Iran, neither of the two provide the Iranian perspective of the coup. Fariborz Mokhtari presents the Iranian perspective on the entire situation in his work, Iran’s 1953 Coup Revisited: Internal Dynamics versus External Intrigue. By focusing in on the Iranian side of this event, he not only provides the other side of the story, but he further develops an understanding on the Iranian coup of 1953. He argues that much of the written history on this event disregarded the idea that Iranians were “inanimate objects”, and were hopeless subjects to the subversive actions of the

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U.S. and Britain. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark43” 21 By describing the political atmosphere within the Iranian government it is

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clear that the coup was much more complex than a simple clandestine operation carried out by the CIA. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark44” 22 Unlike the other two articles that mainly focus on the U.S. and Britain Mokhtari

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explains that the actions of the Mossadeq regime led to its demise. These articles also highlight oil interests of Britain and the U.S. as the main factor that led to the covert operation taking place. Another key instrument that led to the revolution focuses on the actions of Mossadeq and the instilled fear amongst US and UK officials that Iran would fall under Soviet control. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark45” 23

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The final article under review goes back to constructing the key events of the Iranian coup and explaining the effects of this covert operation and the effects on more operations to come. Mike Gasiorowski reconstructs the Iranian coup of 1953 by coordinating with a number of

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark40” 21 Fariborz Mokhtari. “Iran’s 1953 Coup Revisited: Internal Dynamics versus External Intrigue.”

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Middle East Journal 62, no. 3 (2008) 460

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark41” 22 Ibid 470

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark42” 23 Ibid 475

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ex-CIA operatives that were heavily involved in the operation in his article, The CIA’s TPBEDAMN Operation and the 1953 Coup in Iran. It is important to note that much of the information gathered in the construction of this article was provided by people directly involved in the topic at question. By recording first hand evidence, it provides the reader with a rather factual statement taken from the people involved in this historical event. It is important to note that the interviews were conducted years later, therefore the claims that are made within this passage should be taken into question and supported with further evidence. However, by getting first hand evidence through the analysis of Gasiorowski, it is made clear in this literature that covert operations were already underway well before the coup in 1953. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark48” 24 It is because of this

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previous foundation of a covert network within Iran that led to the revolution being a success for

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CIA operation. The effects of this underground network the CIA would mirror this tactic throughout the rest of the world. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark49” 25

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While all of these scholarly monographs provide contradicting arguments and evidence to support their arguments, they all seem to agree upon one fact— that this is the CIA’s first “successful” regime change. Successful is to be under quotations due to the question of whether or not it was actually successful. It all depends on who is looking at it. Yes, it may have proven that covert operations have the ability to play out, but it is still is at the expense of others. The consequences that came forth from US covert operations, according to Jechen, are still being felt

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark46″ 24Mark Gasiorowski. 2008. ”The CIA’s TPBEDAMN Operation and the 1953 Coup in Iran.”

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Journal of Cold War Studies 15, no. 4 (2013), 5

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark47” 25 Ibid 23

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today. Overall, it is mutually agreed upon that Iran was a blueprint for future CIA covert operations. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark54” 26

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One of the main problems behind the CIA is that they rely upon loose intelligence. Loose intelligence is defined as the underestimation of the fact that the people that gain the intelligence may very well proficient at obtaining information on the state of the people. Mark Gasirowski interviewed CIA operatives surrounding the coup says:

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“The CIA was carrying out several intelligence operations in Iran at this time, all focused on the primary mission of combating the Soviet Union and its allies, including Iran’s Communist Tudeh Party. The largest of these operations was codenamed TPBEDAMN, an operation that employed a large network of Iranian agents and sub-agents to carry out propaganda and political action against the Soviet Union and the Tudeh. CIA officials decided to turn this network against Mosaddeq, using its propaganda capabilities to undermine popular support for him before and after the coup and redirecting its political-action personnel to help implement the coup itself. The TPBEDAMN network played an important role in the coup, which occurred on 19 August 1953, though various other actors were involved

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as well.” HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark55” 27

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While this quote discusses how the CIA network was implanted within Iran long before the coup. It is the interviews with these CIA operatives that display the incompetence of the CIA. According to Donald Wilber the CIA agent says “The CIA officers running TPBEDAMN assumed Jalali and Kayvani and some of their sub-agents were keeping large amounts of this money, in addition to their salaries. The Soviet Union and Britain were running covert psychological warfare operations of comparable size in Iran during this period” HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark56” 28 Now according

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to Gasirowski he notes that Jalali and Kayvani are Iranians who came to the CIA to fight a psychological war against the Tudeh party. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark57” 29 The Tudeh party was the communist party within

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark50” 26 Ibid 29

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark51” 27 Ibid 30

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark52” 28 Ibid 32

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark53” 29 Ibid 35

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Iran at the time. Since the United States was at war with the Soviet Union it was clear they would do anything it takes in order to fight against the communist party.

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While the CIA was funding it’s operatives with large sums of money in order to pay their sources for information. The fact that the operatives suspected their sources of skimming money. How could you trust any information that these Iranians were even supplying them in the first place? While it is not proven that these men were stealing money. The fact that there was even suspicion from the agents makes one ponder how the United States government could trust any information that was gained from potentially dishonest men. Any information that was paid for how can the United States government even believe anything anyone tells them? He does note there are no primary sources publicized that the general public can refer to. Since there are not a lot of primary sources declassified by the United States government even 50 years later. Speaks volumes of whether or not the U.S. government realizes that by declassifying these documents would only cause more problems. While it is not known for what reason the United States government is hiding the events surrounding the coup, this creates this idea that the United States is ashamed about inciting the revolution in the first place. The primary documents that have been made available to the public are very loose descriptions that enshroud this particular event in history. However, it is the fact Gastrokowski interviewed CIA agents. Along with the stories that are written down are very detailed, and it is published on a credible source, Project Muse, seems to make this argument valid.

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The thing about the CIA is that they always seem to believe they can change the world.

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However, they put their trust in people who are taking money from the U.S. government. From

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that perspective, how could one even believe some foreign Iranian “spy” who’s taking money from the U.S. government. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark64” 30

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There was a group of anti-Mossadeq coup within Iran trying to coordinate with the British government. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark65” 31 Concern about communist presence developing within Iran. Intended

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audience is unknown however a detailed timeline of relations between Iran and U.K. officials is recorded. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark66” 32 (Ibid pg. 5) Britain was ready to block Soviet intervention within the Middle East in

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1955 according to a document produced by British Chiefs of Staff.

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The Cold War played a huge role of Middle Eastern involvement amongst the U.S. Britain was ready to block Soviet intervention within the Middle East in 1955 according to a document produced by British Chiefs of Staff. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark67” 33 Urging Iran and Iraq to develop denial plans

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towards the Soviets of allowing access to the country’s oil refineries. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark68” 34 American foreign policy

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within the Middle East was just another battleground for combatting communism and its attempt to put a chokehold on Soviet expansion. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark69” 35

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The coup was much more complex than a simple clandestine operation carried out by the

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CIA. Iranian official within the government were looking to the U.S. for help in a regime

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark58” 30 Marsh, Steve. “The United States, Iran and Operation ‘Ajax’: Inverting Interpretative Orthodoxy.” Middle Eastern Studies 39, no. 3 (2003): 1-38., 27

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark59” 31 NSA “Persia: political Review of the Recent Crisis” September 2nd 2

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark60” 32 Ibid 5

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark61” 33 Ibid 7

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark62” 34 National Security Archives: Chiefs of Staff Committee, Joint Planning Staff report, “Oil Denial in the Middle East,” December 13, 1955 ” 3

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark63” 35Jaechun Kim The first American secret war: Assessing the origins and consequences of operation AJAX in Iran 209

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change. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark73” 36 Introduction of Iranian Tudeh Party in 1950 Iran played a key role in the shift in public

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opinion in Iran that led to the revolution. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark74” 37 (Ibid Pg. 457) Instability between U.S./U.K.-Iranian

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relations led to Soviet intervention after the matter ultimately leading to an Islamic revolution in 1979.38U.S./U.K. took part in completing a successful overthrow in hopes of setting up a much more cooperative government than before. Unfortunately an unfair relationship between the U.K. and Iran along with the internal issues within Iran made it next to impossible for any sort of amicable relationship to mature. U.S. government ultimately failed to reestablish order within Iran after the coup thus leading to long term issues and the origins of Islamic radicalism within the region. While the United States government has been meddling in the Middle East there are numerous primary documents that show the United Kingdom has been attempting to broker a deal as well to receive more oil from Iran. Whether or not the shift in presidency still proves that it does not matter who is in charge in the United States, the CIA acts as an autonomous entity.

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The United States president does not seem to have much say in what goes on when it comes to

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foreign affairs and clandestine operations. This might seem all fine but the aftermath has caused an animosity in today’s society and even to this day people are doomed to keep on making the same mistakes almost as if the CIA and the government are always on a quest to look for ways to get oil. According to a CIA document “The oil question still holds paramount position in the immediate welfare of Iran. The Zahedi government has begun a propaganda program to soften

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark70” 36Fariborz Mokhtari. “Iran’s 1953 Coup Revisited: Internal Dynamics versus External Intrigue.” 460

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark71” 37 Ibid. 457

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark72” 38 Kim. 212

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the Iranian public for a re-opening of oil negotiations with the British. It is too early to predict the chances for an early settlement, although preliminary discussions are now taking place between U.S. and U.K. oil experts in Washington.” HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark79” 39

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Between the two presidency’s they both viewed the oil crisis in Iran as a “Cold War issue”. Apparently, previous studies have claimed that the operation AJAX was just a quick term solution for president Eisenhower and would not have taken place had Truman still been in power. Marsh provides his own insight and claims that regardless of the regime change in America the operation would still have happened. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark80” 40 While the two presidenciesy’s both wanted to

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figure out a way to secure the oil crisis. The media and propaganda played a huge role in influencing the American public. HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark81” 41 There is always a pattern of the media uncovering stories in

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order to gain support for the American cause and to distract the American public of what’s really going on. The truth is no one knows what exactly is going on and that is the American way. In this particular case the American cause was to incite a revolution within Iran and put someone in power that would strike a deal in relation to the oil. Not only would they secure a spot in the Mmiddle Eeast when it comes to oil. The United States and the United Kingdom would also have an ally to better arm themselves against Russia during the Cold War. Better yet, no American soldiers would have to give up their lives in the process.

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark76” 39 Mokhitari 461

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HYPERLINK \l “_bookmark77” 40 Harry S. Truman Presidential Library, Independence, Missouri President’s Sec

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