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Addendum to Quiz 1 Study Guide In general: know the patho, know the names of the conditions, know th

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Addendum to Quiz 1 Study Guide In general: know the patho, know the names of the conditions, know the features of the condition, know incidence and prevalence Pay attention to anything that has a high prevalence or is listed as “most common.” Reminder that patho does not occur in a vacuum. Therefore, look for patho across systems (e.g. see IgE mediated hypersensitivity below) and be aware of how the patho will look different depending upon the system. For example, Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is inherited (genetics, newborn screening), affects exocrine glands (GI, respiratory, liver), is diagnosed by sweat test (skin), treated with a multidisciplinary approach…and there is a defect in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (patho). Chapter 2 Understanding meiosis r/t homologous chromosomes and related disorders Chromosome aberrations and associated diseases Aneuploidy Trisomy, monosomy, Fig. 2.12 (non-disjunction) Chromosomal mosaics-this series is helpful to understand mosaicshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ItVllkkcrOQ Autosomal aneuploidy-Down syndrome Sex chromosome aneuploidy- Turner, Klinefelter Abnormalities of chromosome structure Deletion-cri du chat syndrome Fragile sites-fragile x syndrome Transmission of Genetic Disease Autosomal dominant inheritance Delayed age of onset-Huntington disease Penetrance and expressivity-Neurofibromatosis, retinoblastoma, hemophilia Autosomal recessive inheritance Cystic fibrosis-fig. 2.25, incidence, pedigree X-Linked Inheritance Characteristics of Pedigrees Duchenne muscular dystrophy, p. 57 Chapter 3-Epigenetics Prader-Willi and Angelman Syndrome Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome-note: increased risk of developing Wilms tumor/hepatoblastoma Epigenetics plus genetic abnormalities Fragile X, FSHMD General DNA methylation and cancer Chapter 4-Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology Cellular adaptation-true vs. false adaptive change, Know the differences and examples of atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia vs. dysplasia. Know physiologic vs. pathologic Which of these would I see in the respiratory epithelium of a smoker? Cell Injury Chemical or Toxic injury Heavy metals Lead, mercury, ethanol Lead poisoning patho, clinical features Effects of exposure on fetus, children Injuries Asphyxiation-hypoxia, anoxia Suffocation vs. strangulation vs. chemical asphyxiants vs. drowning Know the difference types of each (e.g. hand vs. ligature strangulation) Which category does CO poisoning fit in? Dehydration Systemic manifestations of cellular injury Inflammation, Table 4.10, p. 99 You will see inflammation a lot throughout the course-know the patho (cells, pathways…) Aging and Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology Table 4.12, pp 104 and 105 Chapter 5-Fluid and Electrolytes, Acids and Bases The RAAS, fig. 5.5, 5.6, 5.7-p. 116 You will see this again in renal patho r/t HTN Metabolic acidosis vs. alkalosis; Respiratory acidosis vs. alkalosis Know the normal blood values so you can diagnosis acidosis vs. alkalosis What is the term for hyperventilation in the case of acidosis? Renal vs. respiratory compensation Fig. 5.10 Which of these is the quickest to cause a change? Chapter 6-Innate Immunity: Inflammation and Wound Healing Know the difference between innate and adaptive immunity, active vs. passive Innate Immunity 1st line of defense vs. second line of defense (inflammation) Fig. 6.2 and also p. 136 microscopic inflammatory changes list Cells and cellular components of inflammation Immunoreactive cells and mediators-pp. 142-144 Chapter 7-Adaptive Immunity Review active vs. passive Review humoral vs. cellular Know your immunoglobulins (IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG)-crossover to hypersensitivity rxns (e.g. IgE mediated Type 1) Chapter 8-Alterations in Immunity-this material will be on Quiz 2 also Table 8.2 Know the 4 hypersensitivity reactions and the examples provided for each Type 1 is IgE mediated (product of mast cell)-most allergic reactions, asthma, bee sting Type 2, tissue specific-antibody and complement work together-Graves disease, autoimmune hemolytic anemia Type 3, immune complex (review how antibodies neutralize antigens) mediated-Raynaud, celiac, farmer lung, SLE Type 4-cell-mediated-T lymphocytes-delayed response-poison ivy, rheumatoid arthritis, DM, allergic contact dermatitis Autoimmune disorders Table 8.3 SLE Secondary Immune Deficiencies HIV-infection and destruction of CD4+cells, treatment and prevention Chapter 9-Infection-material on quiz 2 as well Bacterial infection-examples Exotoxins (e.g. c.botulinum, s. aureus), antitoxins, endotoxins (gram-negative microbes=pyrogenic) Fungal infection-examples Parasitic infection-examples-malaria, dysentery, STIs (will show up again in repro patho). 

SCIENCE
HEALTH SCIENCE
NURSING
NRS 530

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