1.         Quantitative and qualitative research approaches are particularly useful in nursi

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1.         Quantitative and qualitative research approaches are particularly useful in nursing because they:

                        a.         Are both process-oriented.

                        b.         Are easy to implement.

                        c.         Balance each other by generating different types of nursing knowledge.

                        d.         Require few resources.


2.         What are the independent and dependent variables in this example?

Smokers who participate in a nurse-led smoking cessation program will be as likely to smoke 2 months later as smokers who do not participate. 


3.         The primary purpose for reviewing relevant literature is to:

a.         Select the research design.

b. Develop conceptual and operational definitions of variables.

c. Interpret various research findings.

d. Delineate the existing knowledge base of an identified problem.


4. The first step of the research process is to:

                        a.         Writing the study hypothesis.

                        b.         Define the study variables.

                        c.         Determining the feasibility of the study.

                        d.         Identify the research problem.


5. Read the abstract below for the study by Czarnecki et al. (2019) and answer the question that follows.

Purpose: Prospectively compare parent/nurse-controlled analgesia (PNCA) to the continuous opioid infusion (COI) in the post-operative neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) population.

Design/Methods: A randomized controlled trial compared neonates treated with morphine PNCA to those treated with morphine COI. The primary outcome was average opioid consumption up to 3 postoperative days. Secondary outcomes included 1) pain intensity, 2) adverse events that may be directly related to opioid consumption, and 3) parent and nurse satisfaction.

Results: The sample consisted of 25 post-operative neonates and young infants randomized to either morphine PNCA (n ¼ 16) or COI (n ¼ 9). Groups differed significantly on daily opioid consumption, with the PNCA group receiving significantly less opioid (P ¼.02). Groups did not differ on average pain score or frequency of adverse events (P values > .05). Parents in both groups were satisfied with their infant’s pain management and parents in the PNCA group were slightly more satisfied with their level of involvement (P ¼ .03). Groups did not differ in nursing satisfaction.

Conclusions: PNCA may be an effective alternative to COI for pain management in the NICU population. This method may also substantially reduce opioid consumption, provide more individualized care, and improve parent satisfaction with their level of participation.

Clinical Implications: Patients in the NICU represent one of our most vulnerable patient populations. As nurses strive to provide safe and effective pain management, the results of this study suggest PNCA may allow nurses to maintain their patients’ comfort while providing less opioid and potentially improving parental perception of involvement.

Study Type: Treatment study.

Then the answer the following questions

What factor would limit the ability of nurses to implement the results of this study in all neonatal intensive care units (NICUs)?

a. Hospitals will not trust parents to administer the narcotic when the infant needs it

b. Parents cannot be trusted to assume this level of responsibility when caring for their neonate

c. Opioids are prescribed by physicians and nurses cannot impact how those orders are written

d. Few NICUs have the physical resources to allow parents to room-in with their hospitalized infant


What was the primary dependent variable in this study?
Pain intensity
Adverse events that may be directly related to opioid consumption
Opioid consumption
Parent and nurse satisfaction
Why do you think the nurse researchers considered this an important study? Multiple Response Item.                  

The parent will visit their hospitalized baby more if they know they are responsible for administering the pain medication                     

Opioids can cause respiratory depression in neonates

Greater parental involvement will decrease the nurse’s workload

This is a vulnerable population

Neonates can develop a physical dependence on opioids


The authors report that this study has an evidence hierarchy of 1. What can the reader conclude from this? Multiple Response Item.

The study design was mixed methods.

The study received funding from the government.

The study had both an intervention and measurable outcomes.

The study was experimental.

The study design allows the reader to infer causality.

NURS 435


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